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drukuj komentujModulacja częstotliwości

Modulacja częstotliwości


Modulacja częstotliwości (FM) polega na zmianie częstotliwości przebiegu nośnego sygnałem modulującym.

Modulacja częstotliwości: a) sygnał modulujący; b) przebieg nośmy; c) przebieg zmodulowany

Chwilowe zmiany częstotliwości przebiegu zmodulowanego są opisywane funkcją

zmiany częstotliwości przebiegu zmodulowanego

gdzie kf jest współczynnikiem proporcjonalności. Wielkość kfUm=deltaf, określająca maksymalną wartość odchylenia częstotliwości chwilowej, czyli amplitudę zmian częstotliwości przebiegu zmodulowanego od częstotliwości fN przebiegu nośnego, jest nazywana dewiacją częstotliwości. Jest ona proporcjonalna do amplitudy sygnału modulującego. Na podstawie funkcji opisującej chwilowe zmiany częstotliwości przebiegu zmodulowanego można otrzymać wyrażenie na wartość chwilową napięcia zmodulowanego

chwilowa wartość napięcia zmodulowanego

gdzie wielkość


Stosunek dewiacji do częstotliwości sygnału modulującego nazywany jest wskaźnikiem dewiacji lub współczynnikiem modulacji częstotliwości. Od jego Wartości zależy rozkład widma częstotliwości przebiegu zmodulowanego. Widmo to jest bowiem bardziej złożone niż dla przebiegu zmodulowanego amplitudowo. Teoretycznie zawiera nieskończenie wiele prążków o częstotliwościach fN-nfm i fN+nfm, gdzie n=1,2,..., rozmieszczonych symetrycznie względem przebiegu nośnego fN. Amplitudy poszczególnych prążków, proporcjonalne do UN, są określone funkcjami Bessela o wartościach zależnych od mf i n.

Widmo sygnału zmodulowanego częstotliwościowo przy df=const i UN=const dla: a) mf=; b) mf=2; c) mf=4

Ponieważ jednak funkcje Bessela dla n większego lub równego mf+1 przyjmują pomijalnie małe wartości, więc praktycznie w widmie sygnału zmodulowanego prążki boczne wyższych harmonicznych sygnału modulującego mogą być pominięte, bowiem przenoszą znikomo małą energię. Dlatego też przyjmuje się, że przebieg zmodulowany częstotliwościowe zajmuje pasmo częstotliwości

pasmo częstotliwości

Jest ono znacznie szersze od pasma zajmowanego przez przebieg zmodulowany amplitudowo, gdyż na ogół deltaf>fm (czyli mf>1). Ponadto szerokość tego pasma zależy głównie od dewiacji deltaf, a więc od amplitudy sygnału modulującego

Widmo sygnału zmodulowanego częstotliwościowego dla różnych amplitud sygnału modulującego przy mf=3: a) Um=U; b) Um=0,5U

Ponieważ w radiofonii ultrakrótkofalowej przyjmuje się maksymalną wartość dewiacji deltafmax = 75kHz, to przy maksymalnej wartości sygnału modulującego fm max = 15kHz pasmo częstotliwości zajmowane przez sygnał zmodulowany wynosi 180kHz. Wymagana dla tego rodzaju modulacji duża szerokość pasma jest jej wadą. Do zalet modulacji częstotliwości zalicza się:
  • małą wrażliwość przebiegu zmodulowanego na zakłócenia i możliwość przekazywania większej dynamiki sygnału modulującego (wynika to z możliwej do uzyskania dużej wartości wskaźnika modulacji - praktycznie od 5 do 1500);
  • stałą amplitudę przebiegu zmodulowanego, a więc stałą moc wymaganą do jej emisji.



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19 May : 20:38
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15 Jan : 08:38
Smutny ... Wzajemnie, i również Życzę powodzenia w tym roku w życiu prywatnym/zawodowy
m, dużo Zdrowia!

15 Jan : 08:38
Witam tych, którzy jeszcze tutaj pozostali, choć od pewnego czasu obserwuję to aż mnie zabolało, że forum się tak osunęło. Szok Bardzo szkoda mi go, co za id*oci się rejestrują że to zniszczone niemal

02 Jan : 20:04
I tym optymistycznym akcentem, życzę udanych projektów i najlepszego w Nowym Roku. Oczko

01 Jan : 20:45
Oczywośie nie żywie do Ciebie pretensji a wręcz podziwiam że sam zostałeś tak długo. pozdrawiam.

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