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drukuj komentujModulacja i Demodulacja sygnałów

Modulacja i Demodulacja sygnałów


Modulacją nazywa się proces, w którym sygnał użyteczny małej częstotliwości (sygnał modulujący) wpływa na określone parametry sygnału sinusoidalnego wielkiej częstotliwości (sygnału modulowanego), powodując np. chwilowe zmiany jego amplitudy lub częstotliwości. W wyniku otrzymuje się sygnał zmodulowany, którego amplituda lub częstotliwość jest proporcjonalna do wartości sygnału modulującego. Jest to więc przeniesienie informacji zawartej w przebiegu sygnału o małej częstotliwości na przebieg o wielkiej częstotliwości (przebieg nośny), czyli zakodowanie jej w parametrach tego przebiegu. Modulację stosuje się w nadajnikach w celu przesłania sygnału użytecznego, np. o częstotliwościach akustycznych, w paśmie ściśle określonych częstotliwości radiowych. Dla sinusoidalnego sygnału modulowanego rozróżnia się:
  • modulację amplitudy (AM - amplitude modulation), polegającą na przekształceniu sygnału modulowanego o stałej częstotliwości w taki sposób, że amplituda otrzymanego sygnału zmodulowanego jest proporcjonalna do wartości sygnału modulującego;
  • modulację częstotliwości (FM - frequency modulation), przy której amplituda sygnału zmodulowanego jest stała, jego częstotliwość zaś zmienia się wokół częstotliwości sygnału modulowanego proporcjonalnie do wartości sygnału modulującego;
  • modulację fazy (PM - phase modulation), gdy faza sygnału zmodulowanego zmienia się proporcjonalnie do wartości sygnału modulującego.
Ponieważ modulacje częstotliwości i fazy są ze sobą związane (przy modulacji częstotliwości występuje również modulacja fazy i odwrotnie), to noszą one wspólną nazwę modulacji kąta.

Jeżeli modulowany przebieg nośny nie jest sinusoidalny, lecz jest ciągiem impulsów, to ten rodzaj modulacji nazywany jest modulacją impulsową. Polega ona na zmianie w takt sygnału modulującego amplitudy lub parametrów czasowych (tj. szerokości, położenia lub częstotliwości) impulsów przebiegu nośnego. Ten rodzaj modulacji nie zapewnia jednak, tak jak w przypadku modulacji sygnału sinusoidalnego, przeniesienia sygnału modulującego w zakres wielkich częstotliwości, lecz jedynie jego kwantyzację, polegającą na zastąpieniu sygnału ciągłego ciągiem impulsów o parametrach (np. amplituda, częstotliwość) zależnych od wartości tego sygnału. Impulsy mogą być przesyłane linią kablową lub można nimi kluczować przebieg nośny w.cz., i wówczas mogą być przesyłane drogą radiową.

Demodulacja, zwana również detekcją, jest procesem odwrotnym do modulacji, polegającym na wyodrębnieniu z sygnału zmodulowanego wielkiej częstotliwości modulującego sygnału użytecznego małej częstotliwości. Podczas demodulacji, na podstawie np. zmian amplitudy sygnału zmodulowanego amplitudowo lub zmian częstotliwości sygnału zmodulowanego częstotliwościowe, jest odtwarzany możliwie wiernie małoczęstotliwościowy przebieg modulujący. Demodulacja jest dokonywana w odpowiednich układach stanowiących bloki funkcjonalne, np. odbiorników radiowych.


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19 May : 20:38
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15 Jan : 08:38
Smutny ... Wzajemnie, i również Życzę powodzenia w tym roku w życiu prywatnym/zawodowy
m, dużo Zdrowia!

15 Jan : 08:38
Witam tych, którzy jeszcze tutaj pozostali, choć od pewnego czasu obserwuję to aż mnie zabolało, że forum się tak osunęło. Szok Bardzo szkoda mi go, co za id*oci się rejestrują że to zniszczone niemal

02 Jan : 20:04
I tym optymistycznym akcentem, życzę udanych projektów i najlepszego w Nowym Roku. Oczko

01 Jan : 20:45
Oczywośie nie żywie do Ciebie pretensji a wręcz podziwiam że sam zostałeś tak długo. pozdrawiam.

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